Carbon Analysis

Raman spectroscopy is an ideal analytical tool for nondestructive analysis of carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials constitute a variety of carbon allotropes including graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanofibers, each exhibiting unique properties in electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. The Raman spectra of carbon nanomaterials are typically characterized by three major bands: the G-band, the D-band, and the 2D-band (also referred to as the G’-band). Though simple, the spectra of these nanomaterials are rich in information about their quality and their micro-structures such as crystallinity and level of disorder revealed by the peak positions, peak shapes, and peak intensities. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique in the characterization of graphene-related materials and is included in the international standard ASTM E3220, Standard Guide for the Characterization of Graphene Flakes, and one the measurement techniques recommended for graphene and graphene-type materials included in ISO/TR 19733.

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are the most popular carbon nanomaterials being studied currently since they possess so many significant features not found in other materials, including high strength, electrical and thermal conductivity. By re-designing and ordering their microstructure, they can be tailored to have even greater flexibility to meet human needs. Raman spectroscopy is a good tool to collect spectra of CNT, and information on the tube diameter and orientation angles. Graphene is often characterized by the ratio of bands related to the long range order, G-band/ D-band, also used in characterization of graphene oxides. Raman peak shift in graphene spectra is proof of slightly different structures, making it an ideal instrument to characterize the material structure in carbon. Raman can be used as a rapid, nondestructive test to ensure material quality in the manufacturing process, including detection of small manufacturing residuals.


i-Raman® Prime

High throughput, Highly Sensitive, High Resolution Raman System

i-Raman® Plus

Highly Sensitive, High Resolution Fiber Optic Raman System


The small footprint of the i-Raman plus allows us to conveniently do a lot of high-throughput screening of Carbon-based nanomaterials and polymorphs in film, solution, or colloidal form

— Dr. Rigoberto Advincula, Case Western Reserve University

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Application Notes

Carbon black is a form of amorphous carbon. It is mainly used as reinforcement filler in automobile tires and other rubber products, but is also used in pigments, paint, and carbon paper. Raman spectroscopy is a very effective analytical technology to characterize carbon materials. The fast characterization of carbon black material using Raman spectroscopy is discussed here to demonstrate that Raman technology is well suited for carbon black material characterization.
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Raman spectroscopy has proven to be an effective technology to characterize conductive polymers in combination with conventional electrochemical experiments. Coupled with electrochemical techniques, it allows in-situ characterization of the molecular structure changes of polymers during the course of electrochemical reactions.
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Raman spectroscopy is an ideal analytical tool for nondestructive analysis of carbon nanomaterials. B&W Tek’s portable i-Raman Prime 532 is equipped with a fiber-optic sampling probe is ideal for analysis of carbon materials. The system is equipped with a high-throughput spectrometer with back-thinned CCD TE-cooled to -25°C, for high sensitivity. It is ideal for materials in powdered forms, with no need for sample preparation.
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Graphene is the revolutionary carbon nanomaterial made up of honeycomb carbon atoms known for its unique characteristics and vast number of uses. In this application note, discover how Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool for characterization of carbon nanomaterials due to its selectivity, speed, and ability to measure samples nondestructively.
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